4. Results

Animation 3: Advection of passive contours (GIF animation; 339kB).
The contour positions are displayed from t = 0.0 to t = 10.0 at an interval of 0.1 . Thick line is the vortex patch.

- As early as t = 4.0 , the yellow and green circles are stretched out, corresponding to the areas with large Lyapunov exponents in Fig. 4 .

- Blue and light blue contours keep their shapes corresponding to the areas with small Lyapunov exponents.

- In the co-rotating frame with the ellipse, fluids in these areas are rotating oppositely from the vortex, which visualizes the clockwise flow in Fig. 5 .